A blend of customary use, Roman (civil law) and Anglo-American (common law) systems, and Islamic law comprise the Philippine legal system. The legal framework is the product of the fourteenth-century immigration of Muslim Malays and the subsequent occupation of the islands by Spain and the United States. Civil law works in areas such as family relations, land, inheritance, contract and criminal law, while in areas such as civil law, procedure, corporate law, taxes , insurance, labor relations, banking and currency, laws and rules of common law origin are apparent.
Philippine law’s primary sources are:
The Constitution-the land ‘s basic and sole rule
Statutes, including Acts of Congress, Municipal Charters, Municipal Codes, Rules of Justice, Rules and Orders of Government, Statutory Regulations, and Presidential Matters.
Treaties and conferences-they have the same strength of influence as rules.
Judicial decisions – Article 8 of the Civil Code specifies that ‘judicial decisions concerning the implementation or interpretation of the laws or the Constitution form part of the Philippine legal system.’ It is only the Supreme Court’s judgments that define jurisprudence and are binding on all other courts.
Customary law also forms part of the Filipino legal system to some degree. According to Article 6(2) of the Constitution, ‘the State shall recognize, support and protect the rights of indigenous cultural groups to maintain and establish their cultures, traditions and institutions.’
The Quran, Sunnaqh, Ijma and Qiyas are the main sources of Muslim law / Shariah.